The protocols commonly used in majority of law enforcement institutions are provided for under the jurisdiction of the country laws. Prior to the occurrence of an incident, for instance, a crime incident the officer needs to be in a vantage position of picking relevant details that go according to the specific incident scene. The officer needs to secure the crime scene in order to establish critical baseline data (Albert & Fiona, 2007). The officer then needs to interview available witnesses at the incident scene before proceeding to examining, photographing, sketching, processing, reconstructing, and preparing a report on the incident.

Essentially the police nearest to the site of incident occurrence needs to activate the response mechanism after a critical situation analysis. The first step is to alert to relevant administrative personnel of the relevant department to take immediate charge of the event (Albert & Fiona, 2007). Alternatively, he or she would alert the emergency response unit in case of an impending emergency incident. In this case, the issue of protocol is often overlooked and the matter pursues a rather universal approach. During actual communication the officer at the site needs to give all the relevant baseline information concerning the actual event occurring.

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Technological Tools Used

In majority of police departments, the most common technology used is the independent police radio frequencies. For instance, high frequencies mostly at 800MHz are preferred for police departments (Foster, 2008). Currently majority of the frequencies have been undergone configuration by converting them into digital from analogue signals that are prone to much interference. This has consequently led transformation of current analogue systems into digital alternatives in the process providing better efficiency and information transfer especially in crime related situations. Other forms of technology used in formal police settings include the use of alarm signals capable of alerting other officers in a departmental setting of an impending major emergency, for instance, one of the magnitudes of a hurricane or terrorist attack (Albert & Fiona, 2007). This is common system in almost all law enforcement establishments especially focusing upon emergency situations.

Effectiveness and Relevance of Current Technology

Current technology can effectively be used in the current criminal justice system in hastening information transfer, improving clarity, and implementing critical components. Focusing upon their relevance in interview and interrogation situations there could be significant improvement in both sectors. Modern techhnologies that usable in these kinds of situations include portable finger print readers to scan criminals and consequently combat deception levels (McCombs, 2009). This will significantly reduce the use if deceptive mechanisms by criminals especially during case interrogations. There are also other tools, for instance, during criminal investigation using social network analysis (Kerschbaum, Schaad & Biswas, n.d). Through computation of relevant bio data, which are context specific to a particular situation the entire criminal network, data specific to an individual undergoing interrogation can be significantly collected.

Other means available for interrogation systems include lie detection systems, which rely upon the study of human reflexes (Albert & Fiona, 2007). This system has been put to use in various criminal investigation settings, however, this has only been limited to high profile cases. Recently there are other latest developments in the criminal investigation department, for example, development of enhances motion detector systems capable of analysing changes in terms of human optical systems (Albert & Fiona, 2007). This operates on a similar principle of the human reflexes by analysing changes in an individual’s pupil size. Tests have been done on the technology in a bid to establish their optimum effectiveness and operational ability in interrogation settings.