Welfare requirements - Within your setting you should safeguard and promote Children’s welfare, all staff must take necessary steps to ensure this. We must promote good health in all areas of all the children within our care and take steps to prevent the spread of infection from others within our care and take appropriate action when they are ill. We must ensure that there are suitable people and the staffing levels are appropriate to ensure safety to all children. The premises, environment and equipment must be suitable to cater for children of all needs, these include outdoor and indoor spaces, furniture, equipment and toys. They must be safe and suitable for the children in your care according to age range and behaviours of each child.

Whenever any incident occurs within the work setting all staff share the same amount of responsibility when it comes to reporting incidents. Weather it is a health and safety incident or a safe guarding issue there are always people within the working environment who manage each area for anything you need to report.

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When receiving any child into the setting you should always address the child as they walk in and ensure they continue to move to the correct place they should be going and do not turn back and wonder out for any reason they may give. On departure you should address each parent as they collect their child, no child should leave the premises with an unknown adult if you have not been introduced to them by their parent and told they will be collecting them even if the child says they know them.

If this incident occurs the parents should be contacted immediately and the child kept with a member of staff until the situation has been resolved. During offsite visits you need to make sure there is the correct staff to children ratio, all children should be kept close to the adult supporting them and not allowed to go anywhere unsupervised. All offsite forms need to be filled out for the children and any emergency information kept up to date. Any children who have medical issues need to have any medication needed kept close by and all staff informed about these children in case of an emergency.

There are minimum requirements for space for safety and welfare reasons. For example if there is a class of children with insufficient space it makes it a lot easier for someone to get injured from pushing and shoving as children are not as spatially aware as adults are. Also there is a higher risk of children getting illnesses as there will be a lot of children in a small enclosed space, for example if they are in a small space and a child was to sneeze or cough there is less distance for these germs to travel as to if there was a larger space. Staffing ratios needs to be correct at all times also due to health and safety reasons. For example if there was one member of staff to a group of children and one of the children were to injure themselves they would require that adults attention which results in the rest of the children with no support so an accident or incident could again quickly arise.

There are a few ways in which you can promote children’s health and well being with these things being- Food and drink, you should encourage all children to have a good water intake and try to give them breaks in which they get the opportunity to choose from water or milk and give them an option to have a piece of fruit if they want a snack, all fruit is good but it should still be in moderation.

All children need plenty of fresh air, this should be incorporated into their daily routine as much as possible, this also means they are getting a sufficient amount of exercise to keep them fir and healthy. Although fresh air is a must they also need warmth from within the class. Every child has the right to good hygiene they need support and guidance in personal care, some children depending on their needs may need it modelling to them. In order for children to thrive they need praise and encouragement with everything they do, always encourage positive things and you should encourage children to make the right choices during their day.

There are many key health professionals and sources of professional advice with an early years work setting, there are- Occupational therapists that assist children in developing skills important for independence, health and well-being, they do this by observing them in their environments and identify barriers in their day to day routines, they relay information and plans to any parents and carers of the child so they can be implemented. Physio therapy roles include, assessing a child and establishing where the concerns lie, by doing an evaluation on muscles and joints including strength, length, alignment and core stability, they come up with a personal plan for the individual child and relay the information to all concerned.

School nurse will offer advice to parents on the health of their child and will carry out hearing checks, give advice on to parents regarding their child’s toilet habits, advice on skin tags and rashes gives information on whether the child needs to visit their GP, this can all be done in the setting. They will monitor the health of the children and also give advice to schools. Speech therapists help children with speech, language and communication difficulties and give advice to schools and parents when giving the child a speech program.

When preparing food you should always keep your dairy, fruit and veg, bread, and meat separate. You should prepare them all on separate chopping boards according to colour to prevent cross contamination and should be wearing gloves at all times, if you change for example from meat to dairy your gloves should be changed to. When storing food all use by dates need to be regularly checked, and fridge temperatures monitored and recorded twice a day. Meat should always be stored on the bottom of the fridge in case of it leaking. When storing breast milk it can be stored in the fridge or the freezer. It can be stored in a fridge at 4 degrees or lower for a maximum of 5 days.

When preparing breast milk if it has been frozen it can be defrosted in the fridge and served from the fridge rather than being warmed up so it prevents bacteria. When storing formula milk they should be immediately placed in the fridge if they are brought in by a parent already made up and used within 24 hours, this ensures it stays cold and prevents any unwanted bacteria. Before you prepare formula milk all work tops should be clean as well as your hands. The bottles, teats and brushes should be thoroughly cleaned and sterilised according to the manufacturer’s instructions, this will stop the risk of a baby getting sickness and diarrhoea. If a baby leaves and formula milk it should be thrown away to prevent the child becoming ill.

To make formula milk boil fresh water in the kettle, let it cool down, but for no more than half an hour, using hot water will kill any harmful bacteria in the powder. Put the boiled water in the bottle first and add the correct amount of powder, follow manufacturer’s instructions on the ratio of powder to water. Cool the formula quickly to feeding temperature by holding the bottle under cold running water with the cap on or putting it in a container of cold water.

Children should eat from the following food groups daily, bread, cereals and potatoes, fruit and vegetables, milk and dairy foods, meat, fish, eggs. all of these foods should be eaten in moderation controlled by an adult this will ensure they have a balanced diet and stay healthy. They should have a good daily water intake also.

It is extremely important you follow parent or career instruction when it comes to allergies or intolerances as you are putting the child at serious risk of a reaction if you give them something they can’t have. There are many reactions from the less server rashing to the more server of throat swelling and lack of breath, this will put the child’s life at risk.

All religions and cultures have different dietry requirements which should be strictly followed. The Islamic culture only eat halal meat, they are unable to eat pork and some cheeses. The adults fast in the Ramadan season this is where they can only eat their foods and drink when there is no day light. In the Judaism religion they also cannot eat pork, they also cannot eat shellfish, cheese with meat, milk/yoghourt with meat, eggs with blood spots and fish-with fins and scales. When eating lamb it must be halal and chicken and beef must be kosher.

Sikhs are able to eat lamb, pork (rarely), Chicken, some cheeses, milk and yoghurt, eggs, some fish and shellfish. They are not able to eat beef.

In Hinduism the strict followers are vegetarians. The ones who aren’t can eat lamb, pork, chicken, some cheese, some eggs, fish and some shellfish. They are unable to eat beef and milk/yoghurt with rennet. Rastafarianism is mainly vegetarian although take some milk products. They can eat lamb, beef, chicken, dairy products, and eggs. They are unable to eat pork and shellfish.

Seventh day Adventist church can eat lamb, beef, chicken, most dairy products, eggs, and some fish. They are unable to eat pork and shellfish.

Ways to educate children in effective food management is to do mostly practical tasks as this is more enjoyable and they will pay more attention if they are involved. They could do things like help at snack and meal times or prepare simple snacks to enjoy with their friends or make posters and leaflets on the things they have been taught. Showing adults a sample of a day’s food and working out the calorie content is a good way of seeing how much food children need rather than telling them how many calories they need as they might not realise the real calories they are loading their children with.

All medicine needs to be kept with a medical form filled in and signed by a child’s parent or carer stating the dosage and times to be taken. A document should be kept recording when a child has last received the medicine and how much to prevent overdose. Some medicines for example an epi pen requires a trained adult to administer so relevant people in the work place need to be trained.

When lifting and handling children in the workplace you require training for safety purposes. Some children will require to be lifted by a hoist you should never lift a child with a hoist unless in an emergency as you are liable if something was to happen. When lifting equipment you should never carry anything bigger than a box on your own and you should always bend your knees keeping your back straight to avoid injury. A manual handling course will give you the correct information on how to lift equipment in the work place.